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The ancient Egyptians had a clearly defined timetable civil. The beginning of the year, also called "the opening of the year", was determined by the appearance of the star Sirius and it occurred around June 21 However, because the rising of Sirius is a stellar event, meaning that it occurs every day ¼ 365, the rising of the star do not correspond precisely to the agenda. 

To correct this, the Egyptians introduced an extra month to create a "Great Year" of 384 days every 2 or 3 years. Because of the inaccuracy or inadequacy of this calendar, the new lunar calendar was invented. This new calendar, based on the phases of the moon was 360 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus five additional days at the end of the year. 

Ancient Egypt Calendar

There were three seasons, each consisting of four months. The months were divided into three weeks of ten days each. The ancient Egyptians began their day with a new sunrise. They divided the day time in twelve hours, numbered from one to twelve years, and the night in another twelve years, numbered from 13 to 24. The times are not all the same length: in the summer hours of the day were longer than the hours of the night, and of course the reverse in winter. 

The sky of ancient Egypt were always clear to measure the passing hours was easy during the day, they used a sundial and night, they used the stars. Later, the Egyptians used water clocks to tell time more accurately than they could with a sundial or the stars. In the original calendar lunar month were numbered corresponding to the only place where they fell in the season while in the new kingdom, they were appointed. 

Dates civilians were usually written as the number of months during the season, followed by the name of the season, then by the number of days in the months and years and finally the rule. When each rule is connected to power would restart the count year. Astronomers throughout ancient times and Middle Ages used the old Egyptian calendar, for his consistency in both the number of days in the month and year did their calculations much easier. 


Ancient Egypt Calendar

Ancient Egypt Calendar

Ancient Egypt Calendar

Ancient Egypt Calendar

Ancient Egypt Calendar

Ancient Egypt Calendar


 However, there was a separate time period in the former kingdom with 320 days a year. Egyptian seasons corresponded with the flooding of the Nile; Akhet (flood season) from June to October, Peret (growing season), from October to February and Shemu (harvest season), February to June Akhet included the month of Thoth, Paophi, and Athyr Khoyak; Tybi of Peret, Mekhir, and Phamenat Pharmuti; Shemu of Pakhons, Payni, Epiphi and BATNA.

The Egyptians noted that (the first reappearance after a period of invisibility) of Serpet heliacal rising after a period of seventy days of invisibility, always came just days before the start of the annual Nile flood. This enabled the ancient Egyptians to predict the coming of the flood. "Akhet" literally means flood. The heliacal rising of Serpet was the beginning of Akhet, and New Year.



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