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Ancient Egypt engineering

Some great monuments stand as testimony to the ancient Egyptian engineering excellence . The Egyptians were probably the first builders of the earth. It is common knowledge to historians that the Egyptians had unprecedented knowledge and talent in engineering skills. The ancient Egyptians were capable of performing sophisticated engineering projects, such as the great pyramids and massive temples with primitive tools.

They have developed methods for careers and move massive stone blocks and then placing them in position. Pyramids were built on a perfectly horizontal, aligned with the stars , which needed precise measurements and able-bodied men. Masons, engineers and construction workers used their body parts as a measurement system.

Ancient Egypt engineering

Ancient Egypt engineering

Their basic unit was the cubit, the distance between the elbow and the tip of middle finger.  Despite variations in size of body parts of different categories of workers, the system was fine for small projects. The royal cubit, which was 52.5 centimeters (20.6 inches) was defined as the norm for temples and pyramids, which required greater precision. 

Architects, surveyors, and construction workers have used special tools and instruments for observing the stars and guiding structures in the four directions and make straight lines and precise angles.

Several theories exist on how the ancient Egyptians created a perfectly horizontal base for the pyramids. Early Egyptologists believed the Egyptians first cut a grid of shallow trenches in the foundation rock, and then filled with water. The act "islands" of stone could then be reduced to the same height.
 
 More recently, they just think that the stripes on the perimeter edges of the pyramid were as perfectly horizontal as possible. The huge stone blocks were cut from quarries located relatively close to construction projects. Limestone was the most common and careers have been found at Saqqara, Dahshur and Giza.

 The granite was mined at Aswan. The stone blocks were marked with just enough space for workers to keep them. No saws or drilling equipment have been found to date, but the tomb paintings provide information on techniques used to cut and refine the blocks of limestone or granite. Workers used saws, drills, copper and pickaxes and hammers, chisels granite. 

 The hard stone focused drills and saws used copper at the time, but it is speculated that the Egyptians added sand in the grooves between the stone and tools. The sharp sand crystals would have increased the power of cutting tools. After they were cut, the stones were moved along the Nile on large wooden barges and then transported to the site on large wooden sledges pulled by hundreds of men or oxen.

Ancient Egypt engineering

Ancient Egypt engineering

Ancient Egypt engineering

Ancient Egypt engineering

Ancient Egypt engineering

 Architectural monuments include the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, which are among the most important buildings and most famous in the world.Blocks of stone were needed of solid stone, copper or bronze tools. During the working bodies of column blocks, and crowns, beams and ceilings were raised to the required level over the ramps of mud and earth to the top of piles of sand adjacent to the walls.

Lifting devices used consisted of wooden gliders, rollers, ropes and levers.  Well-trained teams of workers rowed stone carrying boats across the Nile, then removed the huge boulders overland to their destination. The process required a sincere effort and endurance and patience on the part of a considerable number of workers and other staff, working in harmony and unison.

No doubt this was an important success factor for ancient Egyptian architects.The stone blocks were cut from quarries, such as Saqqara, Giza and Dahshur. They were marked with just enough space for workers to keep them. Some information about the techniques used to cut and refine the blocks of limestone or granite is obtained from tomb paintings.

Workers used saws, drills, copper and pickaxes and hammers chisels granite. After the cutting of stones, they were moved along the Nile on large wooden barges and then transported to the site on large wooden sledges pulled by hundreds of men or oxen. The sleds were pulled along a path made with black mud of the Nile or by wetting the sand, which facilitated to move the heavy blocks.

The ancient Egyptians used several different types of ramps, both inside and outside the pyramid, to drag the huge stones in place. They probably used wooden levers and bronze to move the blocks into position. Technical arithmetic were used for the organization of labor and trade and geometry was used for construction.

Obelisks were an important part of the architecture of ancient Egypt, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of temples.The ancient Egyptians had knowledge to some extent of sail construction. This is governed by the science of aerodynamics. The first Egyptian sails were simply placed to catch the wind and push a ship.Shipbuilding prevailed. Egyptian knowledge of glassmaking was advanced.

The earliest known beads from Egypt were produced in a variety of colors. The Egyptians were a people practices and this is reflected in their astronomy.These fringe theories exploring ancient technology have suggested that there were electric lights used in ancient Egypt. Engineers have built a working model based on their interpretation of a relief found in the temple of Hathor at Dendera temple complex.



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