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 Architectural style in Ancient Egypt

 Egyptian Architectural style developed during the Pre-Dynastic Period c. 4000 BC. Religious beliefs of eternal life resulted in an impressive sepulchral Egyptian Architecture layout. Egyptian pyramids are the most outstanding architectural achievement of the world. Temples, Statutes, Tombs and monuments are other important Egyptian structures. The Nile valley comprises many large and famous monuments of the world.

The Great Pyramid of Khufu, The Great Sphinx of Giza, Temple of Luxor, Temple of Giza, Amon, Isis, Horus and Kom Ombo remain as standing examples of Egyptian architecture, rich and diverse. Its style changed in different periods, depending on the prevailing socio-religious conditions. Due to the absence of wood in the locality, it was rarely employed as a building material. 

Ancient Egyptian Architecture

Ancient Egyptian Architecture

 Building stones were used in monumental buildings. Sun dried bricks were used extensively in dwellings and small buildings. From the Old Kingdom onwards, the stone was generally reserved for tombs and temples while bricks were used even for royal palaces, fortresses, the walls of temple precincts and towns, and for subsidiary buildings in temple complexes.

Monuments were also made of mud. But unfortunately, many have disappeared because of the flooding o the Nile. Examples include the village Deir al-Madinah, the Middle Kingdom town at Kahun and the fortresses at Buhen and Mirgissa. Houses were made of mud. The basic construction method was post and lintel. Buildings were erected without mortar, so the stones had to fit and cut precisely together.

Famous Pyramids of Egypt

No other monument in the world is as famous as the Pyramids of Egypt. The pyramid contained approximately 2,300,000 blocks of stone and was built mainly for the Pharaohs. The first true pyramid was built at Saqqara for the king Zoser. The later pyramids were smooth sided, like the Great Pyramid at Giza, built about 4,500 years ago.

Ancient Egyptian Architecture

The smooth-sided pyramids were built by first having men chisel the block of granite the way that they wanted it. Special rods were used to check that a stone block was cut accurately. Next, the blocks stayed in the quarry until the flood season. Once the boat had arrived near the pyramid and unloaded the blocks, they were hauled up a ramp. Then, ropes and levers were used to manoeuvre the huge blocks into position.

The overseer had to ensure that every block was laid correctly. Once it was done and the blocks were placed correctly, labourers rubbed the casing blocks with polishing stones until they would shine in the sun. The overseers used plump lines to check that the angle of the slope was correct. As for the finishing touches, workers placed hieroglyphics around the pyramid as well as many statues. There were also a lot of bright and vibrant coloured columns.

Ancient Egyptian Tomb

Egyptian burial tombs also deserve mention. The two parts; chapel and crypt constituted the tomb. The highly decorated walls of the funerary chapel accommodated a false door. The halls were flanked by several smaller rooms housing the deceased’s provisions such as furniture, offerings, sacred text, victuals, etc.

Ancient Egyptian Architecture

Temples for the gods were usually large brown columns, made of granite and containing hieroglyphs. They were aligned with astronomically significant events, such as solstices and equinoxes, requiring precise measurements at the moment of the particular event. The stone figures like the Sphinx are scattered throughout the country. But many of them have been stolen.