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Foreign Powers Occupied Egypt


Persian, Greek, Roman, and Arab Conquerors  In 525 B., Cambyses, the son of Cyrus the Great, led a Persian invasion force that dethroned the last pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty. The country remained a Persian province until conquered by Alexander the Great in 322 BC, ushering in Ptolemaic rule in Egypt that lasted for nearly 300  years.
 
Following a brief Persian reconquest, Egypt was invaded and conquered by Arab forces in 642.  A process of Arabization and Islamization ensued. Although a Coptic Christian minority  remained--and remains today, constituting about 10% of the population--the Arab language  inexorably supplanted the indigenous Coptic tongue. For the next 1,300 years, a succession of  Arab, Mameluke, and Ottoman caliphs, beys, and sultans ruled the country.    
 
ancient egyptian army and soldiers
 
 ancient egyptian soldiers weapons
 
 
European Influence  The Ottoman Turks controlled Egypt from 1517 until 1882, except for a brief period of French  rule under Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1805, Mohammed Ali, commander of an Albanian contingent  of Ottoman troops, was appointed Pasha, founding the dynasty that ruled Egypt until his great- great grandson, Farouk I, was overthrown in 1952. 
 
Mohammed Ali the Great ruled Egypt until  1848, ushering in the modern history of Egypt. The growth of modern urban Cairo began in the  reign of Ismail (1863-79). Eager to Westernize the capital, he ordered the construction of a  European-style city to the west of the medieval core. The Suez Canal was completed in his reign  in 1869, and its completion was celebrated by many events, including the commissioning of  Verdi's "Aida" for the new opera house and the building of great palaces such as the Omar Khayyam (originally constructed to entertain the French Empress Eugenie, and now the central  section of the Cairo Marriott Hotel). 
 
In 1882, British expeditionary forces crushed a revolt against the Ottoman rulers, marking the  beginning of British occupation and the virtual inclusion of Egypt within the British Empire. In  deference to growing nationalism, the U.K. unilaterally declared Egyptian independence in 1922.  British influence, however, continued to dominate Egypt's political life and fostered fiscal,  administrative, and governmental reforms.





 Ancient Egyptian Soldiers

Ancient Egyptian Soldiers

Ancient Egyptian Soldiers

Ancient Egyptian Soldiers



Ancient Egyptian Soldiers

 Ancient Egyptian Soldiers




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