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Ancient Egyptian dynasties are grouped into periods of stability referred to as 'kingdoms' and periods of fragmentation and chaos referred to as 'intermediate periods.' Thus, Egypt's ancient history could be divided into three big blocks of time. In each block, all of the pharaohs behaved in a certain way. Scientists have named these blocks "The Old Kingdom," "The Middle Kingdom," and "The New Kingdom."

Egyptian Kingdoms

The Old Kingdom period

The Old Kingdom was a period that lasted from 2700 - 2200 BC. In this period, the Sphinx and Great Pyramid at Giza were built. That is why this period is referred to as the Pyramid Age. It lasted approximately 500 years and is sometimes called the "Age of Pyramids." The building of pyramids would not have been possible without a flourishing economy and a strong central government.
 Royal estates throughout the country centralized and provided the necessary resources needed to construct pyramid complexes. In the Old Kingdom, royal power was absolute. The pharaoh (the term originally meant "great house" or "palace") governed his kingdom through his family and appointed officials. The government was merely one aspect of religion, and religion dominated Egyptian life.

 The Middle Kingdom period

The Middle Kingdom was a period that lasted from around 2100 BC-1800 BC. The Middle Kingdom includes the 12th and 13th dynasties. Their civilization was quite successful. The Egyptians had engineering projects, irrigation and were building ditches during this period.
 During the Middle Kingdom (2050-1800 B.C.), the power of the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom waned as priests and nobles gained more independence and influence. As a result, the governors of Egypt (nomes) gained a hereditary claim to their offices, and subsequently, their families acquired large estates.


The New kingdom period

The new kingdom includes the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties. The New Kingdom started as a great time for Ancient Egypt, but it ended very differently. In the New Kingdom, Ancient Egypt was one of the world's greatest powers. Egypt conquered many countries around Nubia, supplying Egypt with many treasures.
Soon Egypt developed a great empire that reached its highest point in 1400 BC. The New Kingdom capital was moved to Thebes. By the end of the 20th Dynasty, Egypt was again divided into many fractions, and the New Kingdom came to an end.