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Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile. The civilization began around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and continues to thrive over the next three millennia. The history of ancient Egypt is divided into three kingdoms stabilized: the Old Kingdom (c.2686-2160 BC), The Middle Kingdom (c.2055-1650 BC) and the New Kingdom (c.1550- 1069 BC) two pieces separated by periods intermediates.
 
For most unstable in its history, ancient Egypt was unified under one government, so that the main concern was to keep the military to invade the enemy nation. Arid plains and deserts surrounding Egypt were inhabited by nomadic tribes who occasionally tried to plunder or settle in the fertile valley of the Nile. Although the vast desert formed a barrier that protects the river valley and was almost impossible for massive armies to cross, the Egyptians built fortresses and outposts along the border and to the west of Nile Delta in the Eastern Desert and Nubia in the south. 


Ancient Egyptian Army

 
Most Egyptian cities lacked city walls and other defenses. The Old and Middle Kingdom Egyptian armies were very simple, they consisted of conscripted peasants and artisans, who would then fight under the banner of Pharaoh. The Egyptian army at the beginning used specific military units, while differentiated military hierarchy came on the scene in advance of major Middle Kingdom.The technology weapons and the war began around 1600 BC when the Egyptians finally down by the Hyksos.

 Conquests of foreign territories, Nubia, need a permanent force to be stationed abroad. Meeting with other powerful kingdoms of the Middle East as the Mitanni, the Hittites, and later the Assyrians and Babylonians, Egyptians, it took campaigns far from home. It is also during this period, the horse and chariot was introduced in Egypt. Their presence has caused changes in the role of the military in Egyptian society and so on during the New Kingdom, the Egyptian army has changed its troops voluntary organization of professional soldiers. The Egyptian army divided into three main branches: the infantry, tanks and navy.


Ancient Egypt infantry


The infantry were part written, part voluntary. Foreigners have also been incorporated into the army. Nubian Medjay Egyptian armies came during the unstable intermediate first as mercenaries and trained some of the best units in archery. They are famous for their missions against the people Hyksos, who had made themselves lords of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, under Kamose. Kingdoms in East and new beginning, Asian maryannu troops were used and Sherden, Libyans, and "Na'arn" were used in the Ramesside period, ie the end of the Empire Nine (c .1292-1075 BC).

Ancient Egyptian Army

Ancient Egyptian Army

The ancient Egyptian chariots


Chariots, inspired armies of Western Asia, was officially presented as a division of the army at the end of the Second Intermediate Period (c.1650-1550 BC). New Kingdom, it became the backbone of the Egyptian army. Charioteers were drawn from the upper classes in Egypt. Chariots were generally used as a mobile platform from which to use projectile weapons, and were generally drawn by two horses and two chariots mounted: a driver who was wearing a shield, and a man with a bow or the javelin . Chariots also had the support of infantry.


Ancient Egyptian Navy


Before the New Empire, the Egyptian army was essentially aquatic. Marine was part of the Egyptian army, although more often than not, it was little more than a way for ground troops where they were needed. However, for the interim period later, the Navy has become very sophisticated and complex naval maneuvers used, for example Kamose campaign against the Hyksos in Avaris port (c.1555-1550 BC).

Egyptian squadrons composed of fast "Keftiu / kebentiu" Byblos and Egyptian transports patrolled the eastern Mediterranean, and the higher ranks of the elite consisted of the environment. Egyptian deployment of archers and the fact that Egyptian ships could both be sailed and rowed, gave them a decisive advantage, despite the inferiority of ships themselves, which were sometimes large enough to carry "Two hundred and fifty soldiers.

Egypt lost its role of maritime superpower after the end of the New Kingdom. Phoenicians and Greeks have become key players in the continental powers such as the Persians Mediterranean maritime nations to impose their control over the seas. The last of the Ptolemies, Queen Cleopatra VII joined forces with Marc Anthony Roman, in an attempt to preserve the independence of Egypt. But his fleet was defeated at Actium, which defines the end of pharaonic Egypt.
 
 
 
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