The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), for some 43 centuries, was ranked as the highest man-made structure on earth, being surpassed in height in the nineteenth century AD. To give a relative idea of its size, consider that the area covered by the Great Pyramid could accommodate St Peter's in Rome, the cathedrals of Florence and Milan, and Westminster and St Paul's in London combined.
Khufu probably abandoned the royal necropolis of Dahshur because it lacked enough space to build large complex he intended for his burial, and because there was not enough limestone nearby, but it can also have been concerned about the stability of the basement, which consists of shale. He chose instead to build his pyramid on a rocky promontory in the desert near modern Giza, where the basement was much more stable and there was also an abundant supply of high quality limestone.
The Great Pyramid was built by quarrying an estimated 2.3 million large blocks weighing 6 million tonnes in total. The majority of stones are not uniform in size or shape and are only roughly dressed. The outside layers were bound together by mortar. Primarily local limestone from the Giza Plateau was used. Other blocks were imported by boat down the Nile: White limestone from Tura for the casing, and granite blocks from Aswan, weighing up to 80 tonnes, for the King's Chamber structure.
Like some other pyramids, the structure was built on a rock jutting out in the middle, which made the core of the pyramid easier to build and at the same time, it strengthened. Otherwise, the outcrop was reduced to a horizontal level which was just 2.1 cm (one inch below). Because of its greater accuracy, Borchardt thought the east side was probably the baseline used for measurements of foundation.
The materials used in the construction of the pyramid came from quarries in the southeast of the pyramid. The limestone blocks were almost certainly carried on a ramp on the construction site. According to Lauer, the pyramid was probably built then through a system of ramps, including ramp 50 meters wide main careers that led to the construction site. It is very possible that other smaller ramps eventually became a part of the core of the pyramid.
Of course, there are other theories about the construction of the structure, with new semblance arise every year. However, somewhat recently, remnants of ramps have been found by Dr. Zahi Hawass on the south side of the pyramid that attest that some type of ramp was actually used. This simple and effective method has elevated over an area of about five hectares, blocks weighing three tons (at lower levels) to a ton (higher levels). However, some blocks were even heavier.
For example, the construction of the king's chamber used pink granite boulders weighing forty to sixty tons, and granite beams that the roof of the King's Chamber and the anti-stress rooms above, it was estimated weigh from fifty to eighty tons. These all had to be raised to a height of about seventy meters. Borchardt agreed with Lepsius that the masonry base was inclined layered accretion. However, recent investigations made by the French geophysicists have shown that the ring structure is extremely heterogeneous.
It probably also contains compartments filled with sand, rubble probably low and other wastes, which have not only saved considerable time, but it would have diverted the pressure inside of the pyramid more effectively than solid masonry . It must also have been useful during the occasional earthquakes that occur in Egypt. However, the dimensions and arrangements within the basis of these compartments can not at this point be accurately determined.
These and other factors to explain why recent estimates of some researchers to reduce the estimated number of blocks in the pyramid of about 2.3 million to about half of which, of course have a significant impact on time and the work required to complete the structure. However, the exterior walls of the soul are indeed built with huge blocks laid in horizontal rows. Today, only 203 blocks remain. Those in the upper rows in September appear to have been broken.
The height of the blocks varies between about one and a half meters. As with the previous Red pyramid, the walls are slightly concave designed to increase the stability of the mantle of the pyramid. Between the core and mantle, another layer of smaller stones was associated with mortar, which increased the cohesion of the two materials and two masonry structures. In archaeological terminology, this intermediate layer is known as the "accompanying stones".
The housing, which has the outer surface of the pyramid was made smooth large blocks of white limestone and end, traditionally regarded as having been harvested from the Muqattam range on the east bank of the Nile. Some, but very little of it is still in place, mostly at the base. These stones can weigh up to fifteen tons. Recently, some researchers have assumed that these stones could be from the nearest and most accessible to the west of the career pyramid Didoufri in Abu Rawash, where valuable, high quality, bright white limestone is also found.
Originally, the pyramid was topped by a pyramid shaped stone called a capstone. Pyramidion Khufu may have been covered in electrum, a shiny metal gold and silver. However, this capstone is now lost, and can never be recovered, although not so long ago, Dr. Hawass has found the capstone of the pyramid worship nearby. With the capstone in place, the pyramid is thought to have spent a few meters (146.59 feet 481) at the origin with a slope of 51o 50 '40 ".
Over the years, he lost about 10 meters (30 feet) from the top. Its base length is calculated as 230.33 meters (756 feet), with the greatest difference in side lengths of 4.4 cm (1 3/3 inches). The structure is square at all levels. It is the orientation to each of the cardinal points, although there is an error of 3 '6 "off of true north.