One of the most significant archaeological sites in Sinai is a place called Serabit el-Khadem. Showing the mines of the pharoahs, it is situated in the western part of Sinai, approx. 40 kilometers east of Abu Zenima. Serabit el-Khadem located in the south west of the Sinai Peninsula, where the ancient Egyptians to find turquoise in the past. Showed archaeological excavations by Sir Velinrdz Petrie from the old mining camps in addition to the Temple of Hathor, an ancient Egyptian goddess used by the ancient Egyptians to protect desert Srabit server its way deep rugged .
Which is above the difficult climb to Plateau from all sides. Effects in them, as well as mines located above the flat surface of the high plateau. Have been found in this region on the many statues bearing the names of King Sneferu of the Fourth Dynasty. King Mentuhotep III and King Mentuhotep IV of the kings of the Eleventh Dynasty and engraving for each of Senusret I and his father's name First Omnhamat. The most famous monuments in the region is the temple of Hathor and other inscriptions Sinaiticus.
Temple of Hathor
Has been set up by King Senusret I goddess Hathor lady turquoise and then saw the temple additions in many subsequent eras where he began cave temple of Hathor carved in the mountain which is the holy of holies of the temple. Then constructed in front of the other chamber to consecrate Anhorthm hesitation the names of many of the other kings in the temple. The inscriptions on the paintings and rock interfaces contain the usual litanies of the goddess .
The total number of inscriptions found in Srabit server 387 an inscription from the two Central and modern. It does not include inscriptions of the temple, of course, where the miners sent missions headed by a senior official, because the mines from the King's property. Were inscriptions remember the name of the king and the head of the mission and his senior staff.
Built by Pharaoh Senusret I of the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty in the Middle Kingdom when the Egyptians discovered the presence of gold and turquoise and precious stones in the Sinai ancient Egyptians began prospecting for gold and turquoise. In the era of the modern state, the king Amenhotep I repair the breaches of the private lobby structure mobile columns.
Also built the structure of Hathor faucet, which was intended to cleanse the visitors to the temple and then added Amenemhat second part of this construction. In the era of Alfronan Amenemhat III and IV structure was the Lord God and God Hathor During the reign of Thutmose III and Hatshepsut Added several halls in front of the Holy of Holies. Then the next several halls in the reign of his son Amenhotep II. And six cabins built in the reign of Amenhotep III.
In the era of the Eighteenth Dynasty re Fraantha interest in Serabit el-Khadem This continued interest in the age of Thutmose III and Hatshepsut and Amenhotep Alii Lucite I and Ramses II and Ramses VI where the number of inscriptions Bsrabit server 387 inscription Perhaps the most important characteristic of the Serabit el-Khadem they area discovered the year 1905 Ketaabat later known inscriptions Sinaiticus, which is out of alphabets.